This article offers a 5Cs checklist, derived primarily from the American Bar Association’s 4Cs of elder law ethics, of the risk factors that lawyers should observe in interviewing and advising elderly clients.


Professional Conduct Rules; ageing population; elderly persons; special risk factors; client identification; conflicts of interest; confidentiality; capacity; communication; Vulnerable Adults Bill; advising elderly clients; joint or common representation; Law Society of Singapore v Ahmad Khalis bin Abdul Ghani; Law Society of Singapore v K Jayakumar Naidu; mental capacity; Mental Capacity Act; Code of Practice on the Mental Capacity Act; Chee Mu Lin Muriel v Chee Ka Lin CarolineNg Bee Keong v Ng Choon Huay and others; NSW Best Practice Guide; client’s best interests; interviewing; language barriers; undue influence; independent interpreter; record-keeping; attendance notes; Goh Jong Cheng v MB Melwani Pte Ltd